# The Universe is an Open System

As we discussed in the previous section, the common understanding of the second law of thermodynamics is that "in a closed system, entropy [chaos, disorder] always increases."

This statement is correct unto itself, however when we take the idea of chaos and disorder increasing through the history of time in our Universe, we find what seems to be a paradox: As time progresses onwards, the Universe expands, cooling and reaching a point of of diminished chaos where life is then allowed to evolve. This very notion of evolution suggests that the combinatoric logic of the great chain of species increases in complexity through time.

It is not wrong to say that "in a closed system, entropy increases," however we must provide the caveat that the universe is an open system.

As such, the procession of time brings about a constant decrease in the thermodynamic variables of the Universe as a whole and single system. The pressure and temperature of the Universe decrease and the volume of the Universe increases.

This decrease in energy can be seen as a reduction in a thermodynamic potential; a decrease in the overall potential to do work. This dissipated energy is not destroyed per se, but rather becomes unrecoverable. It seems to be the natural state of the Universe that this loss of potential will inevitably occur, and with it, the progression of time and the inflation of space progress.

The dissipated energy at its loss of work is:

- NOT potential energy: having been used already, there is no potential to be used again

- NOT kinetic energy: kinetic energy implies motion and thus momentum. Change in Momentum multiplied by the mass of the body in motion gives us a force [dP/dt = a, F=ma] and that force could, in some way, be used to do work.

The result of this dissipation is a decrease in chaos, and this facilitates a corresponding increase in order, as guaranteed by our interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, which says:

If heat or energy is dissipated from a system such that a state-change reaction is provoked, the energy leaving the system and the corresponding decrease in internal motion will create a composite result, a more complex consequent comprised of a combination of once-simpler components.

By corollary, if the Universe is dissipating energy used to do work [by doing work], and systems that dissipate in energy will tend toward complexity, then we can plainly see that evolution is a natural extension of the laws of thermodynamics, taken in context of the universe as a whole and as an open system. The Universe is, in general, expanding in complexity

The universally prevailing trend toward an ever-evolving higher order through expanding, arithmetic complexity suggests that we are in a universe with simple origins and simple laws that govern its evolution. In the coming section, we will examine the concept of self-organizing systems and discuss life as an emergent behavior resulting from a limited instruction-set of thermodynamic principles.

Thermodynamics, Number Theory and The Goilden Ratio
Creation, Evolution and the Golden Rule
Theory of Order
Why Fibonacci and Gibonacci sequences appear everywhere in nature,
and how simple combinatoric math can describe how a Universe with simple beginnings evolved into a complex form